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    من تعلم لغه قوم امن شرهم

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    شافي سيف
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    عدد المساهمات : 412
    تاريخ التسجيل : 03/01/2011
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    مُساهمة  شافي سيف في الأحد يناير 09, 2011 11:10 am



    PARAGRAPH – LETTER – E-MAIL
    * يوجد ثلاث أنواع لــ "paragraph " ( عام - شخصية - حدث جاري )
    عند كتابة الموضوع اتبع الخطوات الآتية :
    1- قراءة العنوان جيد لكي تعرف عن ماذا سوف تكتب وإذا كان العنوان غير معروف عليك قراءة الأفكار جيداٌ حتى تستنتج عن ماذا يتحدث الموضوع.
    2- نكتب عنون الموضوع في منتصف السطر الأول.
    3- حدد الافكار الرئيسية للموضوع ولو عن طريق اسئلة مثل ((what – where – when – how……
    4- أبدا الموضوع بـ ( sentence topic ) أي جملة رئيسية تحتوي على فكرة الموضوع.
    5- يترك (واحد سم ) من السطر الأول لكل موضوع.
    6- استخدم الزمن المناسب لنوعيه الموضوع الذي تكتبه ( مضارع – ماضى – مستقبل ).
    7- بداية كل جملة حرف ( capital ) ونهاية كل جملة (. ).
    8- استخدم جمل بسيطة وحاول استخدام ما درسته من روابط بطريقة صحيحة لتجعل الموضوع مترابط.
    9- لا تبدأ الجملة بكلمة And أو But بل اكتب جملتك مباشرة بدونها.
    10- اجعل الخط كبير وواضح واكتب على سطر واترك سطر.
    11- حاول أن تختم الموضوع بجملة قصيرة وقوية.
    12- خصص صفحة كاملة للموضوع في ورقة الامتحان.

    الموضوع العام
    * إما يكون هذا الموضوع " سلبي أو ايجابي "


    أ- الموضوع الايجابي " أي شيء له فائدة للناس والمجتمع " ومنها :
    Tourism - Industry - Local goods - Computer - Internet - Reclaiming desert - Social work - Planting trees - The advantage of ( شيء ) - School libraries - keeping the environment clean - Spare time - Technology - Reading for all - Living in new cities - The role of women in society - Mobile phone - Friendship - The importance of - Life in countryside - The youth.









    * هيكل الموضوع " ايجابي "
    (ملحوظة)**********( هذا الهيكل للطلاب الذين ليس لديهم القدرة على الكتابة)

    اسم الموضوع
    At the beginning we can't ignore that ………. play an important role in our life, so we must do our best to develop it …………. جملة من الأفكار ……………………………………………………………………………….
    .اسم الموضوع ….has a good effect not only on us, but also on our society. ………جملة من الأفكار……………………………………………………. . Today all Egyptians should share fully in the life of society to develop it through this matter.
    In addition to that ……………… is considered one of the most important matter which deserves to write about it…………………………
    …………………جملة من الأفكار……………………………………………. .
    We must ask ourselves this question “why is this matter important?” this matter is important because ………جملة من الأفكار…………. . As a result of all that all that factors. It is clear that this matter play a vital role in the life of man and society. Thus, we should care for this matter.

    ب- الوضع السلبي " أي شيء يعير مشكلة للناس والمجتمع " ومنها :
    Smoking - over population - traffic jam
    The disadvantage of ………….- over population - pollution - shortage of food - housing problem - unemployment - money as the root of all evil - war - rise in prices. Swine flu

    هيكل لموضوع " سلبي "
    اسم الموضوع
    At the beginning we can't ignore that ………. is the most dangerous and serious problem, so we must do our best to solve it …………. جملة من الأفكار …………………………………………………………………………
    .اسم الموضوع …. has a bad effect not only on us, but also on our society. ………………جملة من الأفكار…………………………………………….. . Today all Egyptians should share fully in the life of society to solve it through this matter
    In addition to that ……………… is considered one of the most important matter which deserves to write about it…………………………
    ……………………………جملة من الأفكار…………………………………….
    We must ask ourselves this question "why is this matter very important?" this matter is dangerous because ………جملة من الأفكار…………. . As a result of all that all that factors. It is clear that this matter is very dangerous in the life of man and society. Thus, we should care for this problem.



    جـ- الحدث الجاري:
    * يمكن كتابة مقدمة وخاتمة أي موضوع حسب ما يأتي في الامتحان.
    * يوجد بعض الجمل تغير في الكتابة ومنها
    * Raise the standard of living. يرفع مستوى المعيشة
    * Increase the national income. زيادة الدخل القومي
    *Increase our knowledge. زيادة معرفتنا
    * Solve our social problem. حل مشكلاتنا الاجتماعية
    * Improve our living conditions. تحسين مستوي المعيشة
    * Keep order and respect law. الحفاظ على النظام واحترام القوانين
    * Render great services to our country. تقدم خدمات عظيمة لبلادنا
    * Expand the learning process outside school. التوسع في العملية التعليمة خارج المدارس
    * Provide the needs of people. تزود الناس باحتياجاتهم
    * Is the backbone of any nation? العمود الفقري لأي أمه
    * We must exploit all our natural resources. يجب أن نستغل مواردنا الطبيعية
    * Illiteracy and unemployment result in the spread of crime.
    ينتج عن الأمية والبطالة و انتشار الجريمة
    * It teaches us discipline and co-operation تعلمنا النظام والتعاون
    *To enrich their knowledge لإثراء معرفتهم
    Letter
    عند كتابة letter يراعي الآتي :
    1- يكتب العنوان ثم التاريخ في الركن الأيمن العلوي من الصفحة.
    2- اكتب اسم الشخص بعد كلمة Dear في الجانب الأيسر من الصفحة تحت آخر سطر من عنوانك مباشرة.
    3- اكتب جملة افتتاحية.
    4- اذكر الغرض من كتابة الخطاب في الفقرة الأولى.
    5- لا تستخدم الأشكال المختصرة للأفعال مثل I'm / I've / I'll
    6- اختم الخطاب بجملة ختامية.
    7- استخدم عند التوقيع yours faithfully إذا كان المرسل إليه madam / sir
    8- استخدم هند التوقيع yours sincerely إذا كان المرسل إليه ”اسم موجود".

    اسم الشارع ورقمه
    المدينة
    الدولة
    التاريخ
    Dear : المرسل إليه
    I am pleased to write you this letter and how are you and your family?

    جسم الموضوع

    See you soon
    Yours sincerely
    المرسل
    A replay to a job advertisement

    Address of the Address of the
    Company applicant
    Date
    Dear Sir,
    In reply to your advertisement for........ (Job)........ in...........(paper)............. dated............ (Date).................. I would like to apply for it.
    Details of the applicant تفاصيل بيانات عن المتقدم للوظيفة
    I look forward to hearing from you .

    Your faithfully,
    Name


    هـ- عند كتابة paragraph عن شخصية تعجب بها :
    اسم الشخص
    The person who I admire very much is ………... I admire him, because he / she achieved his / her goal in the field of...مجال عمله... He / she does his / her goal. جملتان من الأفكار ……………………………………………………………
    This person affects me greatly and formed my character and my point of view, so I respect him and thank him greatly………………………… جملتان من الأفكار
    In short, we can’t ignore or forget those who have affected us and formed our views and ideas in life.

    سؤال البرجراف في امتحانات الثانوية العامة منذ سنه 80
    1- Why the government does its best to teach all citizens reading and writing (1980)
    Use the following guiding words:
    Follow events – newspapers / read books – supply- information / books – magazines – improve work/
    different subjects – general knowledge / write letters – friends – relatives / make use – daily activities/
    make use –daily activities / nobody – deceive
    (1980) 2-Life in a big city
    Use the following guiding words :
    Many shops – buy things / variety – goods – choose / different kinds – schools – universities / means of
    Entertainment- cinemas – theatres / too much noise – nervous / streets – crowded – difficult to walk /
    cars and buses – move slowly
    3- People who spend more than they can afford (1981)
    Use the following guiding words:
    People save – use – in the future / need – pay – school – university / daughter – get married / fall ill – expenses / waste – money – poor.
    4- Going camping (1981)
    Use the following guiding words:
    Some young people – life – home / parents – everything / in camps – depend / cook – clean – tents – make – beds/ learn – cooperate / enjoy – open air – beauty – nature
    5- The best friend one can have is a book (1982)
    Use the following guiding words:
    Choose – suits – taste / scientists – latest - discoveries / students – increase – knowledge / most people – plays – stories – pleasure / book – faithful – never disappoints
    6- While we are fast asleep, there are people who work for our safety and comfort. (1983)
    Use the following guiding words:
    People – services – at night / policemen – guard – against thieves / bakers – bread – ready – breakfast / newspapers – print – early morning / workers – night – factories – twenty four hours.
    7- A Road Accident (1984)
    Use the following guiding words:
    Way home – saw – crowd / approach – a boy – bleeding / crossing – road – run over – by car / moment –
    Ambulance – first-aid men – carry – the nearest hospital/ more – crossing the road
    8- Means of Encouraging Reading at School ( 1985 )
    You may use the following guiding words :
    Ministry of Education – attention – school libraries – develop – habit / teachers – encourage – read / competitions – held – arouse – interest / rewards – read – number – books / class library – cooperate – provide – books – magazines and newspaper
    9- What a new city should be like (1986)
    Using all the guiding words is not a must.
    Includes – houses – private gardens / inhabitants – blocks of flats – means of comfort / living areas – lie- heavy traffic – crowded streets / near – schools – shopping centers/ transport problems – designed – modern living
    10- The Ideal Family (1987)
    You don't have to use all the guiding words.
    In my opinion – consists of / father – provide – food – shelter – education /too many children – unable / mother – keep – healthy / parents – children – love – care
    11- Accidents resulting from modern technology at home outnumber road accidents. (1992)
    12. Show how Egyptian schools can be made more attractive and interesting to pupils. (1993)
    13. Advantages of traveling abroad (1993)
    14. The duties of young people towards their parents (1995)
    You can make use of the following points
    -Love – obedience – kindness / doing the shopping – helping at home / presents – different occasions
    15. The value of having pen-friends (1996)
    16. Three ways in which in which we can make use of desert land (1996)
    17. Great projects provide opportunities for work and better living conditions for all Egyptians. (1997)
    18. A story ending with: "….I shall never forget my father's advice to be careful when I choose my friends." (1997)
    19. To build up a great country, the Egyptian youth should be hard working , honest and well-educated. (1998)
    20. A story beginning with: "Last month, on my way home, I saw…." (1998)
    21. The advantages of having a business of your own and not waiting for a government post (1998)

    22. Education of village women aims at the good of the Egyptian family and the progress of the whole country. (1998)
    23. Money is important to all of us. We can't live without it. But at the same time, it is a double-edged weapon. Discuss showing how it should be earned and spent. (1999)
    24. One favourable character you look up to as a model. (1999)
    25. Reasons for happiness differ from one person to another. Write about the things you think will help you lead a happy life. (1999)
    26. A story ending with: "….crime doesn't pay, and a criminal loses more than he gains." (1999)
    27. What do you think life will be like in the year 2020? (2000)
    28.You have just come back from a school trip. Write a paragraph describing how you spent time there. (2000)
    29. Describe what you would like a tourist to see in your country. (2001)
    30. The role of the youth in our society. (2001)
    31. How to solve the problem of over population (1988)
    32. Suggest some ways that may clear the traffic jam into your town or city (1988)
    33. The number of tourists in Egypt has been growing in recent years. Tell how Egypt could be a big centre for tourism (1989).
    34. The recent changes that have taken place in Egypt (1989).
    35. Describe a place you know which is worth visiting. Choose anyplace you like such as a city, a museum, a historical place, a building, an airport, a factory, a park etc.(1991)
    Try to cover the following points:
    - Where the place is - why you think it is interesting - what you like most about it

    36. Yesterday you saw a man break into your neighbour’s house while you were out. He left later on carrying some of their possessions. The police want you to write a statement, describing exactly what you saw. Include a description of the man, how he entered the house and what you saw him carrying.(1991)
    37.Your plans for the future. (Azhar 2001)
    You may expand the following ideas:
    -passing the final exam
    -getting high marks to join one of the top faculties
    -being humble and avoiding to be a money-maker
    38. "How to make your city a better place to live in" (Azhar 2002)
    You may expand the following ideas:
    -state the problem / city dirty / need to do something
    -start recycling / create more parks / plant trees
    -all work together / city better place
    39. " Manners make a man" (Azhar 2004)
    You may expand the following ideas:
    -good manners and bad manners
    -gain people's respect / set a good example / sense of responsibility / love of God
    40. What do you think of the French law that forbids Muslim female students from wearing their veils at schools? (Azhar 2004)
    -obey God's orders / protect women and girls / conservative / interfere in personal beliefs / self-respect and personal decisions
    41. The advantages of buying local products labeled "Made in Egypt". (2002)
    Guiding points
    -great variety – cheaper prices – work opportunities – Egyptian taste – help local industries – national income
    42. Keeping a clean environment is the responsibility of every citizen. (2002)
    Guiding points:
    -Role of the individual – air pollution – water pollution – noise – hygiene and public health
    43. You have received an invitation from an international space agency to travel in space. The trip will take one month , however you can only take four things with you. Describe your feelings, tell us about the four things you would take and why they are so necessary for you. Tell us about the first person you would tell about your trip and why you chose him. (2003)
    44. Some people like life in the countryside because it is calm, peaceful and away from pollution. Others like life in the city because it is more lively, more entertaining and faster. Which kind of life do you prefer? State why. (2003)
    45. The continuous rise in prices has become a national problem for most Egyptian families. (2004)
    Write about:
    -The reasons for the increase in prices of most goods –the role the government plays in controlling the market – some suggestions on how to overcome this problem
    46. Choose a job that you would like to do after you graduate. Write about your reasons, advantages of working in this career, and the skills and training required for it. (2004)
    47. "Computers in Society" (2005)
    Personal computers first appeared in the mid 1970s, and since then they have changed our lives forever. How? What about the different areas in which we use computers: Education, business, entertainment, government, communication, offices, etc

    48. A lot of things we use every day like electric lights, television, computers, telephones and mobile phones, etc are so much a part of our daily lives that we take them for granted. Write about:
    What would life be like if they hadn't been invited? Which one would you miss most? (2005)
    49. "Thinking about the future" What will life be like in the future ? Will it be better, worse or the same as now? What do you hope about the future? Think about: technology, medicine, education, war and peace , food , work , people and other things of your choice. (2006)
    50. "What should be done for children's welfare?" (2006)
    You may use the following:
    -duty – government – interest – children / build – kindergartens –provide – means of entertainment / parents – teachers – set good examples / TV programmes – carefully chosen / instruction – religion – develop – virtues
    51. Social work is a means through which Egyptian youth can help society (2007)
    You may use the following words:
    Share – neighbourhood – educate the illiterate – job opportunity – better life – care for orphans – bring happiness
    52. "The advantages and disadvantages of running your own business"2007
    You may use the following ideas:
    Starting your own business – being your own boss – flexible working hours – gaining all the profits – taking risks – suffering losses – need a lot of money – expensive equipment
    53."The various ways through which people can keep good health and fitness" (2008)
    You may use the following ideas:
    -The value of exercising a sport regularly – going on a diet and eating healthy food –

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين نوفمبر 19, 2018 5:31 pm